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# Compiling C to WebAssembly

Ten years ago, a coworker tried to teach me cribbage on my last day at work, but I didn’t get it.

The following year, I met my future wife, and she was a cribbage fan. She taught me, and I’ve loved the game ever since.

Six years ago, I wrote this cribbage score calculator in C. It takes a string like JH 2C 3C 3S JS, and returns the full accounting of the score in a game of cribbage. Example:

% ./bin/hand JH 2C 3C 3S JS
J♥  2♣  3♣  3♠  J♠

Pair for 2: 3♠  3♣
Fifteen for 2: 2♣  3♠  J♠
Fifteen for 2: 2♣  3♣  J♠
Fifteen for 2: 2♣  3♠  J♥
Fifteen for 2: 2♣  3♣  J♥
Pair for 2: J♠  J♥

Score: 12


The way I calculate the score is by using a neat mapping between sets and strings of bits.

## Correspondence between subsets and bitstrings

Suppose I had a set of cards: $$S = \{{ 5♣, 10♥, 5♥ \}}$$

How many subsets are there? One way to answer this question is to count the number of subset functions. Consider a function f which takes a card in S as input, and returns 1 if it’s in the subset, and 0 otherwise.

$$f : S \to \{{ 0,1 \}}$$

Now, working backwards from all the possible outputs, you can enumerate all 8 subsets:

    //        Hand         | Bits |
//        -------------|------|
//                 5♥  | 001  |
//            10♥      | 010  |
//            10♥  5♥  | 011  |
//        5♣           | 100  |
//        5♣       5♥  | 101  |
//        5♣  10♥      | 110  |
//        5♣  10♥  5♥  | 111  |


Well, it’s 8 if you count the empty set. Since my code is a janky little C program, you need to compile it and run it at the command line. But thanks to a glorious new technology called WebAssembly, you can compile C programs to an assembly language that runs natively in a browser, and then call into it with JavaScript.

WebAssembly, or wasm, can be emitted by first installing emscripten, and then changing the makefile like so:

 hand: cribbage.o cards.o hand.o
-       gcc-4.7 -g3 tmp/*.o -o bin/hand
+       emcc -O3 -s WASM=1 tmp/*.o -o bin/hand.js

cribbage.o:
-       gcc-4.7 -g3 -c src/cribbage.c -o tmp/cribbage.o
+       emcc -O3 -s WASM=1 -c src/cribbage.c -o tmp/cribbage.o

cards.o:
-       gcc-4.7 -g3 -c src/cards.c -o tmp/cards.o
+       emcc -O3 -s WASM=1 -c src/cards.c -o tmp/cards.o

hand.o:
-       gcc-4.7 -g3 -c src/hand.c -o tmp/hand.o
+       emcc -O3 -s WASM=1 -c src/hand.c -o tmp/hand.o


Remarkably, that totally worked. Then you can import the compiled hand.js output into the browser and call into it:

The standard output goes to console.log, here is my cribbage calculator working with almost no effort:

While my crib_calc program is not the best example, I chose it because it was a small but nontrivial C program that used multiple files, structs, bit-shifting and standard I/O. Even though I haven’t touched this C code in 6 years, I could quickly get it compiling to wasm with almost no effort.

The dream of portable programs is alive in WebAssembly.