Seeing the bulk: a primer on dimensionality reduction

If you haven’t seen Interstellar, you might not get the reference in the title. Don’t sweat it, the bulk beings are some advanced civilization that is able to move outside the familiar 3D space that we are stuck in. A similar plot device was used in Edwin Abbott’s book Flatland. Outside of entertainment, there is a lot of value in attempting to understand high dimensional spaces. Physics, machine learning, and engineering control systems all make use of higher-dimensional spaces in one way or another.…

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